Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa – Libya
I am meeting someone for the first time and I want to make a good impression. What would be good discussion topics? Libyans are welcoming and generous to foreigners and would always try to help them adjust to the Libyan lifestyle. However, foreigners should know what topics to bring up when meeting Libyans. One may need to approach the people differently depending on their ages, education and gender. There are many topics that could be used to start a conversation with Libyans. Talking about the weather is a good topic to start with, especially the hot weather in summer and how to get away from it by enjoying the splendid Libyan beaches.
Transforming ‘a culture of revenge’ in post-revolution Libya
The sheikh has documented the destruction of more than Sufi cultural sites across Libya over the past decade. Since NATO-backed rebels ousted longtime ruler Muammar Gaddafi in , chaos and a lack of security in Libya, combined with the rise of extremist Islamist groups, has led to an uptick in attacks on Sufi sites, say scholars and heritage groups. Islamic State militants have torn down ancient sites in Syria and Iraq with bulldozers and explosives.
Both sides of the current civil war between the U. Besides the standard prayers, Sufi devotions include singing hymns, chanting the names of God or dancing to heighten awareness of the divine. Since , Libyans for the most part stopped marking the occasion, which is viewed as idolatrous by extremist groups, including the ultra-conservative Madkhali-Salafists.
shall guarantee the cultural rights for all components of the Libyan society and its period not later than ninety days from the date liberation is announced and.
The intensification of conflict in Libya has affected millions of people across the country and driven vast numbers into displacement. Furthermore, the conflict has largely impacted refugee and migrant flows directed towards Europe. REACH was first deployed to Libya in and in order to support the humanitarian response following the ousting of the regime.
As conflict re-escalated, REACH was again deployed to Libya in , and today the work of REACH focuses on multi-sector needs assessments and research programmes investigating the impacts of migration flows in and to the country. Furthermore, REACH conducts regular market monitoring activities to map the impact of the economic crisis as well as to provide up to date information to the actors providing cash-based aid in the country.
Regular updates, key findings and contact information. Evidence pouring in from various market monitoring and analysis assessments showed the extent to which food security levels are being threatened in many countries. With this in mind, IMPACT Initiatives prompted a discussion with market monitoring and food security experts to further elaborate on the role of market monitoring and analysis systems, and the need for more granular data.
Central Africans continue to endure the many nefarious effects of a complex and severe humanitarian crisis. Yet for the first time in the country, and in spite of significant logistical and security challenges, a multi-sector needs assessment has been conducted to respond to the crisis in a targeted, prioritized and effective manner. REACH assessment of the situation revealed that the challenges faced by refugees and migrants require acute attention.
So far the response has been underwhelming, compounding their already existing vulnerabilities. Following the de-escalation of active military operations in Iraq, the fighting has stabilised.
Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010 – Libya
The rock-art sites of Tadrart Acacus are found in a vast area of desert landscape around and mostly to the north of the town of Ghat in south-western Libya. The Acacus was included on the World Heritage List only based on criterion III: an exceptional testimony to a series of civilizations which have disappeared.
Whilst the Algerian Tassili appears now to be incorporated in a list of mixed sites, this has not happened for the listed territories of Libya.
Our operations in Libya. Repsol’s first exploration and production activities in Libya date back to the early seventies with a focus on our Upstream.
Libya is an Islamic country, and the majority of its population are devout Muslims. That being said, Libya provides a mild-mannered dose of the Middle Eastern religious culture that often challenges the Westerners adapting to it. As long as expats remember to remain respectful of the tenets of Islam during their time in Libya, they should find friction rare and easily reconciled.
In fact, the root of the largest source of anxiety and nervousness in expats moving to Libya is the lack of information available to prepare for the move. People are often taken aback upon their airport descent, to be in the company of shop fronts boasting Western-style clothing and supermarkets coloured with the ripe, fresh produce. Though the country has one of the strictest bans on alcohol and drugs in the world, its attachment to other areas of conservative extremes has waned over the past decade.
Women are now able to drive, though society still remains gender segregated — necessitating that expat women have male companions for many daily activities that would normally be carried out independently in a Western setting. Shopping alone is allowed but not common. Most women shop in groups or with male relatives. When eating out, women will go as a group, or better still, with their male relatives.
In the cities, men are free to wear t-shirts and shorts below the knees. Women are accepted in three-quarter-length pants and skirts, t-shirts and long sleeves, with no need for head scarves. There are even a number of designated expat beaches where Western-style bathing suits are accepted.
15 things you should know about Libyans
SPARK, a Dutch non-governmental organization focused on higher education and entrepreneurship in post-conflict countries, is working with partner organizations in Libya to help women reach that goal. Conflicts can often upend existing gender hierarchies. For example, in Europe and the United States, the Second World War left so many men dead or injured that women were required to enter the civil and military workforces to sustain industries and the economies.
In the following decades, women campaigned for greater opportunities in employment, politics and power. Subscribe to our free newsletter.
Desert Migrations: people, environment and culture in the Libyan Sahara in North Africa: securing the age of the Qurta petroglyphs (Egypt) through OSL dating.
When a bulldozer razed the domed, century-old zawiya to the ground, turning the oldest Sufi place of study and worship in the Libyan coastal city of Sirte into a pile of rubble, Oussama Ali Bin Hamel was not shocked. The sheikh has documented the destruction of more than Sufi cultural sites across Libya over the past decade. Since NATO-backed forces ousted longtime ruler Muammar Gadhafi in , chaos and a lack of security in Libya combined with the rise of extremist groups has led to an uptick in attacks on Sufi sites, say scholars and heritage groups.
More recently, in January, in the wake of Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani’s death in a U. President Donald Trump tweeted that the country would obliterate 52 sites that are “important to Iran and the Iranian culture. In Libya, Sufi sites are being destroyed by terrorist groups who “dismiss Sufism and everything that has happened over 1, years because they claim to be restoring the ‘pure Islam from the time of the prophet,"” said Islamic studies scholar Zahra’ Langhi.
Both sides of the current civil war between the U. Today, “while there are few Libyans who are still formally participating in Sufi orders, traditional Libyan cultural practices and folk customs embrace certain Sufi traditions,” said Jason Pack of the D. The mystical belief has become a part of the national culture, creating a resonance with “the majority of people, even if they are not Sufis,” said Bin Hamel, the Sufi sheikh.
One Sufi tradition that has taken root in wider Libyan culture is the celebration of Mawlid, the Prophet Mohammad’s birthday. Since , Libyans, for the most part, stopped marking the occasion, which is viewed as idolatrous by terrorist groups, including the Madkhali-Salafists.
Things to see and do in Libya
Even in the Arab World, Libyans can stand apart. But we’re really simple, if you keep a few things in mind:. This may change, as I am on a one-woman crusade to speak Libyan to other Arabs so it catches on. Put me on TV already dammit.
Main events in Libya, anniversaries, Libyan festivals, Ghadames festival of students participate in this cultural festival and that the old date coincides with their.
Festivals are large celebrations with plenty of food, drinks, dance and music. In one ancient Egyptian festival in the 12th century BC, over 11, loaves of bread and nearly jars of beer were made available to the public. Original festivals and feasts were part of a larger ritual belief, largely determined by lunar or solar cycles, in relation to natural seasons. When grains germinate and produce more grains, year after year, humans thankfully reacted with owe and admiration in order to guarantee the following harvest.
Most Ancient festivals were religious, while others were royal, like the Libyan-Egyptian Sed festival which celebrated the thirtieth year of the Pharaoh’s rule. Ramesses III established his own festival to celebrate his victory over the Libyans who attempted to regain control over the conquered land.
FEATURE-Sufi cultural sites caught in crossfire of Libya civil war
The bidders are encouraged to conduct the physical site visits for complete understanding of the Scope of Works. An organized site visit, subject to government movement restriction is planned for April 21, , at below timing. However, exact date will be confirmed during pre-bid meeting. If already registered, sign in using your username and password.
Women in Libya Women are now able to drive, though society still remains COVID Stay up to date with our coverage on the coronavirus pandemic. Libya provides a mild-mannered dose of the Middle Eastern religious culture that often.
The social setting of the family significantly affects the circumstances of a wife. Until the discovery of petroleum–and to a lesser degree until the revolution–conservative attitudes and values about women dominated society. By the s, however, modifications in the traditional relationship between the sexes were becoming evident, and important changes were appearing in the traditional role of women. These varied with the age, education, and place of residence of the women.
In traditional society, beduin women–who did not wear the veil that symbolized the inferior and secluded status of women–played a relatively open part in tribal life. Women in villages also frequently were unveiled and participated more actively in the affairs of their community than did their urban counterparts. Their relative freedom, however, did not ordinarily permit their exposure to outsiders.
Libya ceasefire deal stalls in Moscow
Libya is a North African country along the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. The Libyan culture is a blend of many influences, due to its exposure to many historical eras.
Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus Cultural Landscape is list in the World Heritage List of UNESCO (Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus), in category: cultural, with date.
Nondiscrimination and Access to Justice: 2. Scale of 1 to 5: 1 represents the lowest and 5 the highest level of freedom women have to exercise their rights. Libya gained independence in and was ruled by King Idris until Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi took power in a bloodless coup in September He has retained complete control ever since.
In the s, Qadhafi developed what he termed the Jamahiriyah State of the Masses , which was based on his political, economic, and sociological ideas as laid out in his famous Green Book. The Jamahiriyah is a unique form of popular Arab socialism that in theory enables every citizen to participate in the political process through a complex hierarchy of people’s committees and congresses. However, in reality, Qadhafi is in complete control and runs an authoritarian centralized state that relies heavily on the security apparatus to maintain control.
Libya’s population is currently estimated to be around 5. Libya’s economy is heavily state centralized and based primarily on the hydrocarbons sector. Private sector activity remains extremely limited, as it has been strongly discouraged by the regime, and at certain times outlawed. As a result, the bloated state sector is the largest employer. However, public sector wages have been more or less frozen since the early s and most people have had to take on two jobs in order to survive.
Libya’s Sexual Revolution
Libya , country located in North Africa. Libya comprises three historical regions— Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. The Ottoman authorities recognized them as separate provinces. Under Italian rule, they were unified to form a single colony, which gave way to independent Libya. Before the discovery of oil in the late s, Libya was considered poor in natural resources and severely limited by its desert environment.
Five Milliemes of Libya. Issue Date: Publisher: Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad. Description: Crowned Libyan coat of arms with Arabic legend above.
The mountain scenery on the border with Algeria is spectacular but, as if that wasn’t enough, these rock cliffs hide some of the Sahara’s finest prehistoric rock art, particularly at Wadi Metkandoush and Wadi Tashwinat. Libya’s coastline is dotted with some of the most spectacular ancient ruins in all of the Mediterranean. In most cases, the sites are well-preserved and best of all, you’ll encounter very few tourists – that was the case even before the revolution.
Leptis Magna, a short drive from Tripoli, is the most magnificent of all; its cobbled streets, Severan Arch erected in honour of Emperor Septimus Severus , marble- and granite-lined Hadrianic Baths, detailed basilica and large amphitheatre are easily worth a day of your time. Cyrene, three hours from Benghazi, spills across the hilltop; check out its ancient fertility temples, beautiful Temple of Zeus and Roman stadium. Sabratha, between Tripoli and the Tunisia border, is also stunning.
All three sites – and four more along the coast near Benghazi – closed their doors during the revolution, but you may be able to talk tour guides hanging around nearby into allowing you a visit. Tripoli’s spectacular fortress houses a maze of courtyards and buildings, situated on a promontory above the city. The Jamahiriya Museum, which houses ancient artefacts, closed during the revolution, but there are plans for it to re-open.
There isn’t much of a beach culture in Libya; many local people prefer to go out for picnics in the countryside instead. This means you’ll sometimes have the coastline’s gorgeous golden sands to yourselves.